Christopher Duggan: Fascist Voices



Sarfatti wasNeither was there much room for his wife Rachele Guidi or other collaborators of the arly days like Angelo Oliviero Olivetti founder of the Fasci d Azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista which One Con Glory evolved into the Fasci di combattimento or Angelica Balabanoff Enrico Corradini Alceste de Ambristc All important figures you can hardly write a book about fascism Defying Shadows (Rising Shadows especially an intimate history without mentioningThe theses seem to be thata Mussolini was a megalomaniac and a buffoon the former of which may be partially true but far from the whole truth and the second of which is the common result of reading too much into and projecting onto Mussolini the worstxcesses of Achille Starace s own undeniable buffooneryb fascism was nothing but propaganda and The Great Orange Leonard Scandal (Tall Tales Series; 4) empty promises There was lots of propaganda and it was very powerful and influential but again there was a lot to it than that and a lot was built and achieved for better and for worse in concrete termsc the supposed big revelation from Petacci s diaries that Mussolini was an anti semite based on one sentence out of a diary of tens of thousands of pages and contradicted literally hundreds of timeslsewhere not only in speeches but by the fact that he was sleeping with a Jewish woman for 25 years and a disproportionate percentage of the Fascist gerarchs were Jewishd restatement of the Black Legend alleging that Pius XI and Pius XII were Hitler s Popes a conclusion reuiring the author to ignore a truly staggering amount of Tangled Webs (The Black Jewels, evidence to the contraryHaving said all of the above good things about this book were that the author writes in anngaging manner and the narrative really flows For the most part he avoids taking an overly polemical tone Where primary sources the only primary sources really used are the aforementioned handful of diaries are used they re well integrated into the rest of the narrativeI think Duggan is a good author but maybe not an outstanding researcher Had to read this for my History class at school It was long winded and I had to stop 230 pages in Remarkable book detailing life under Benito Mussolini s Fascist government Duggan draws from diaries letters and private correspondence to detail the upheaval wrought by Mussolini s reign He shows Mussolini s appeal rested on several pillars Italian nationalism frustrated since Garibaldi s Risorgimento a sick barely functioning democracy Italy s disastrous performance in World War I and diplomatic betrayal at Versailles By Duggan s account Mussolini was the right man in the right time charismatic decisive and a master of image And as he shows most Italians stood by Il Duce until the conseuences of his autarchist imperialist New Order became inescapable Duggan may be faulted for downplaying Fascism s cultural and A Fairly Honourable Defeat economic sides but it s otherwise an incredibly balanced nuanced work This is a disconcerting useful and wonderful book Duggan s aim is to write a history of the fascist regime in Italy through the writings and testimonies of diarists and letter writers he uotes from archives all over Italy most notably the huge collection of letters ordinary Italians wrote to Mussolini which is on This is a pretty solid book if a bit over academic and tedious at timesIn a nutshell it s the history of the Italian fascism the rise the fall and the conseuences but with a spin letter upon letter from devoted followers of the regime writing to the Duce and themselves sharing personal stories on how they felt and lived the timesThis is a uniue spin because you don t normally get to hear the ordinary people retell an important part of the history And it s fascinatingThe religious and sexual devotion of women the dutiful and unrepentant soldiers the odd sceptic Words from Mussolini are also there privatexchanges with his mistresses including his penchant for drama and hyperboleThe author goes through uite a few periods the humiliation after WWI the anarchy what liberalism meant in Italy in those times the rise of the fascism the domestic policies the invasion of Ethiopia the fickle relation with Germany and nvy of Hitler the poor conduct of the Italian army in WWII the almost too sudden removal of Mussolini from po. Ices makes use of rarely xamined sources letters and private diaries newspaper reports and secret police files to uncover how ordinary people Elisabeth Shue 135 Success Facts - Everything You Need to Know about Elisabeth Shue experienced fascism on a daily basis and how its ideology influenced their beliefs values language and lifestyleTracing fascism from its conception to its legacy Christopher Duggan unpicks why the regimenjoyed so much suppor.

Shows what can be done by an academic with access to primary sources Very detailed The Man Without a Face explanation of how the Duce duped Italy in the chaos that followed the Great War Each part of the unfolding story references the letters and diaries of the people and their love of the the Duce thispic history of fascist Italy Happy Easter, Mouse! (If You Give...) explores the development and support of Italian support for fascism using individual diaries Dugganxploresthe reaosn for support and trust often in Mussolini rather than his ideologically incoherent and oppotunistic Party Buidling on the failure of Liberalism to build an Gone (Gone, ecomomically strong and modern Italy Mussolini surgeto pwoer was seen as a source of relief by many Italains disnagaed frm politics and looking for a better futureDuggan s workxxplores the failure of Fascism to deliver the modern anti materialistoc and Threads Of The Shroud ethical mass nationalism promised and the deepening cyncism of Italians finally destroyed by the debt and disgrace if war this booksxplains the lack of thorough purge of fascism the attraction of Italian intellectuals to a very Italian forn of socialism and the relentless cynicism about psrty politics that shaped modern society Thorough research and smooth reading Extraordinary and disturbing My mother went to high school in Mussolini s Italy She was the only girl in her class and took Yugoslav citizenship after the war All Seated on the Ground even though her parents became Italian After reading this book I know why Dr Duggan received two awards for it and was honoured by the Italian government with the Commander of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity Not uite what it promises to be The author only used a small handful of diaries cited very sparingly and for constructing his narrative relied on the same secondary sources asveryone lse which is to say the now largely outdated histories of the fascist period written before Renzo De Felice published his biography of Mussolini or as a defense against De Felice s thesesThe one diary that is cited freuently is that of Clara Petacci finally declassified only ten years ago though discouragingly the manuscripts have only made available to three authors so far Heavily redacted ditions were published in Italian in 2010 11 by Rizzoli the Wiring editors admitted that they were forced to omit over two thirds of the material and had to redact thentries they did include for space considerations and this book seems to have been an attempt to capitalize on their recent publication Unfortunately the Petacci diaries as published by Rizzoli are completely bizarre and self contradictory Against All Odds either because of mistakes by theditors journalists Mauro Suttora and Mimmo Franzinelli or because the diaries themselves are not authentic The biggest issue with the diaries is that they put Mussolini in places he was not at on those days another strange thing about the diaries is that Petacci who came from a bourgeois family had a good Jingling Daddys Bells BDSM Menage education and by all accounts was not stupid was an absolutely terrible writer Because most of what she wrote makes no sense the nephew of Petacci believes that she was a British secret service agent as a way toxplain her often cryptic writinguote mined as they are in Duggan s book they appear to make some sense and so the picture you get of Petacci s writing in this book is a paraphrase of a paraphrase of her actual diaries Another disappointing thing about this book was that there was no room in this intimate history for Mussolini s closest collaborator and lover for 25 years the Italian Jewish socialist Margherita Sarfatti She was with Mussolini from Forl in 1911 to his time as ditor of Avanti to Il Popolo d Italia in 1915 to the March on Rome in 1922 wrote his official biography Dux in 1925 right up to Mussolini s about face in 1936 when he left the Anglo French Italian alliance and aligned Italy with Germany and Sarfatti suddenly found herself no longer welcome at Palazzo Venezia The name of Sarfatti only appears three times in this book Once in one of the uotes from the Petacci diaries as the well known art patron and critic and Mussolini s biographer and in relation to two brief uotations from her 1925 biography It seems that Duggan doesn t ven know who. Christopher Duggan's new history of fascist Italy Against All Odds explores how the movement becamembodied in the person of Benito Mussolini who occupied for many an almost divine status and gave millions of men and women a sense of pride and hope offering the prospect of national regeneration after decades of disappointmentA work of xceptional authority and originality Fascist Vo.

Wer the subseuent civil war and the history of overnight denial that still affects the Italian societyThe only downside is that Christopher gets a bit prosaic with too much focus on the letters and not nough on the historical Treasons, Stratagems, And Spoils elements around them All in all though he manages to do a reasonable work with this book An interesting piece for history buffsIgor The rise and fall of Benito Mussolini is brought to life through theyes of his supporters By using their stories and voices Christopher Duggan animates the human drama that played out in these years in Italy While many readers know this Payment Due epic story they will they will want to read this to sense and feel the times The writing conveys thera s danger desperation and passion Duggan shows how in the chaos poverty and disappointment following World War I Mussolini like Hitler was able to seize power and solidify it He capitalized on the sentiment that he was strong nough to create order where chaos and violence most of which was perpetrated by his own party reigned He fashioned himself the superman of Nietzsche and fostered the image of The Duce who would be Italy s savior He shut down Italy s fledgling democracy dealing himself full powerFor ach of the periods of his almost 20 year reign there are personal stories such as those of the suadristi violent fascists a mafia fighter in Sicily soldiers in the Ethiopian campaign students missing their teachers when the racial laws barred Jews from government Pirate of the Pacific (Doc Savage, employment fascists who uestioned the leaders around their beloved Duce the Duce s daughter as she provides war relief in Sicily and uotes from the diary of his most intimate mistress Carletta Petacci occur throughout The writers demonstrate anmotional adoration that is both religious and familial p 64 My leader our leader will power in his jaw my life belonged to him only him p 247 The heavens seemed closer to me P 248 You have instilled in us Duce with love of a son for his father p 301 Duce when you receive this letter I will be already dead fallen on the field of honor with your name guarded on the depths of my soul Some are romantic like those of the Bologna housewife who wrote him 848 letters p I feel your love strongly and this gives me the strength to remain yours and wait So many kisses I would give my dear Benito Published this year The Pope and Mussolini The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe shows the contempt that Mussolini and his The Rich and the Profane (Lovejoy, early fascists had for the Church Pope Pius XI made concessions to spare violence against clergy and church property The Church gave both passive and active approval to fascism allowing its symbols to be used by to promote fascism Duggan does not discuss this but you can clearly see the conflation of Catholicism and fascism in the cult of the DuceDuggan shows how King Victor Emmanuel III was happy to cede the job of running the country to the Duce The descriptions of the short dull king and his robust prime minister are sadly comical as the King rubber stamps any and all issues brought to him by Mussolini The king s abrupt dismissal of Mussolini could have used background on howwhy this King who permitted so much for so long finally put his foot down This is a book of Fascist Voices so while there is a chapter on the opposition you can approach the final chapters of this book with the idea that all of Italy is in thrall to Mussolini Themotional outpouring of relief when he is arrested the lack of support of his new Republic and the reactions to his death show that while there were many fanatics there was a vast silenced majority Italy did not did not have war crimes trials so fascism was never debated Duggan shows that after the war it just went underground He notes some life coming back to the movement with former Prime Minister Berlusconi blithely uoting from Mussolini and the press laughing at joke comparing the Turbulence extra marital life of the two prime ministers The booknds with the voices of the modern day fascists who leave notes by Mussolini s tomb While the messages don t have the religious overtones they show continued adorationThis is a must read if you are interested in this period of Italian history. T among the majority of the Italian population He Tropical Bioproductivity examines thextraordinary personal relationships that millions of Italians had with Mussolini xplores the religious dimensions of totalitarianism and discusses why the 'cult of the Duce' still resonates in contemporary Italy Fascist Voices is a fresh and disturbing look at a country in thrall to a charismatic dictat.

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Christopher John Hesketh Duggan was a British historian specialising in the political social and cultural history of modern Italy He began his career as a research fellow at Wolfson College Oxford and then at All Souls College Oxford In 1987 he moved to the University of Reading where he remained until his death He had been Professor of Modern Italian History since 2002